From 2027, keeping poultry in cages will be banned in the EU. In the USA and Asia, the initiatives are much more fragmented. Frank Hartmann reviews the effect on the market and our customers.
Influencers for cage-free eggs from 2027
The forerunners in restricting enriched cages 商业层是荷兰、斯洛伐克和捷克共和国. The EU is now also opting for a ban with a phasing-out period until 2027. 欧盟这一禁令背后的驱动力是一些大型食品集团和动物福利组织. At its heart lie a changing understanding of animal welfare as well as a drive for a more sustainable food policy. 商业公司很乐意在他们的交流中包含这些道德声明. And the EU sees it as a measure in its “Farm to Fork“ strategy, a project that works toward a food chain that is fairer, healthier and more environmentally friendly.
At the moment, 48 % of table eggs in Europe still come from houses with enriched cages. These eggs are no longer for sale as whole eggs to consumers. They are mostly processed in the food industry. Even before the EU voted for this ban, 食品行业的一些大型参与者已经转向 cage-free eggs. Nestlé Europa and Mondelēz International 是否已经在生产所有(或几乎所有)饼干或冰淇淋时使用了散养鸡蛋. Unilever states that 100 % of its sauces are produced using free-range eggs. There is great support among the multinationals, Danone, Walmart, Aldi, Lidl, General Mills and Kellogg's also announced a switch. 可以说，响亮的公司名字名单每天都在变长.
Direct consequences for the commercial layers sector
这一消息将迫使商业层部门在未来几年再次投资. On the one hand, 直到最近(2012年之前)，许多养殖商用蛋鸡的农民才将他们的电池笼换成了强化养殖笼. Now financial efforts are again expected to purchase a completely new house design, including new feeding, drinking and nesting systems. 因此，农业联盟和部长们努力寻求充分的建议, guidance and financial support for the sector. 因为这不是一项能够降低日常生产成本的投资. The operational costs will be higher. 这意味着严格来说，需要更高的鸡蛋价格.
On the other hand, there is unrest about the import from non-EU countries. 这不仅涉及廉价的笼蛋，还涉及蛋黄粉等衍生产品. 该行业希望欧盟将在鸡蛋和蛋制品的明确进口规则方面做足够的工作. Fair competition in the field of imports is an absolute precondition.
Alternatives to layers houses
目前，在全球范围内流通的层式住宅布局有5种. In the summary below, layout 1 and 2 are aimed at reducing the cost price. These 2 types are increasingly being banned. Layouts 3 to 5 are the alternatives.
- Battery cages: 自2012年以来，它们已被欧盟禁止使用，但在美国和亚洲仍在使用. 不丹王国实际上是欧盟以外唯一一个禁止使用电池笼的国家. A global map with the status of battery cages.
- Enriched cage: 多层笼子原则，该原则在欧盟将逐步取消，直至2027年.
Alternative systems for commercial layers:
- Aviary housing: this housing system also consists of several floors. 房子的地板上有动物觅食和在沙子里洗澡的垃圾. Perching systems are provided that serve as resting places.
- Floor housing: is a free-range house without floors, which offers a better overview. Perching systems are provided that serve as resting places. There is no outside run.
- Free range: 一个自由放养的谷仓有地板房，白天在外面自由放养吗. The organic segment also chooses this layout, 只有在这里，商业养殖层才能得到有机饲料，而且当它们在室内时，它们有更多的空间.
Snowball effect in rest of the world
在其他大陆，当涉及到强化笼子时，立法是如何演变的? In the United States, the state of California will switch to cage-free eggs in 2022. 在美国，对笼中鸡蛋的使用设定期限的州越来越多。in the West: Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Washington, Oregon, California; in the East: Michigan, Massachusetts and Rhode Island). However, 在物流方面，各州之间的割裂似乎正在成为零售商的噩梦.
In Asia此外，据预测，到2025年，散养蛋将成为标准. At the moment, it is mainly the multinationals like Charoen Pokphand Foods and hotel chains who set the tone. In Taiwan, 政府已经宣布他们想要升级商业层的指导方针. 其目的是通过降低投资于散养系统的利率来刺激家禽养殖户. So there is also a snowball effect going on in Asia. While writing this article, 我的收件箱里收到了一份时事通讯，说澳大利亚将在2036年之前通过一项禁令的法律. In other words, the actions are coming too fast to keep track of them.
A dilemma for retailers and food companies?
声明要“放养”的食品公司也越来越多. That means the demand for cage-free eggs will only increase over time. Will there be enough cage-free eggs as the target date approaches? Some retailers and food companies are expected to face a dilemma. Either the use of cage eggs is prolonged, 否则，这些公司将不得不在供应有限的市场上更积极地购买. Which would mean a good price for the commercial layers company.
Eggs are popular again, because consumption is rising. 如果适量食用，鸡蛋现在被视为营养健康饮食的一部分. Eggs are relatively affordable in most parts of the world. In itself, therefore, good prospects for the commercial layers sector.
Table: top 10 egg-producing countries in 2018
China is the largest producer of eggs. Globally, 1 in 3 eggs originates in China. 在未来几年，预计印度将成为该榜单上增长最快的国家.
欧盟将于2027年禁止饲养家禽，这将迫使家禽养殖户对替代饲养系统进行新的投资. Unlike many other investments, those extra costs will not translate into lower, daily production costs. The operational costs will be higher. Strictly speaking, the higher egg price is therefore really necessary. 公平竞争和进口产品满足相同条件的要求是获得投资回报的基础.
在世界其他地方，“无笼计划”如雨后春笋般涌现. Measures are often very fragmented. 它们涉及单个国家、地方政府或食品公司的决定. 这使得商业层部门很难估计未来的市场需求. Will there be too few cage-free eggs or rather too many? Will the consumer be willing to pay the increased price in the shops? 可以肯定的是，消费者对动物友好型生产方法越来越敏感. 政府、零售商和食品公司在证明鸡蛋价格上涨是合理的方面发挥着重要作用.